SIP Application Layer Gateway – Cisco and Fortinet

SIP ALG is a feature where the firewall will inspect the SIP packets as they egreesses the firewall

Purpose of SIP ALG

Fortinet/Cisco
1) Modification of IP addresses in the application payload when NAT is used.
2) Dynamic opening of data ports (“pinholes”) as required to allow audio traffic. Otherwise, firewall policies need to statically open a wide range of ports.
3) Inspection and logging of VoIP traffic (using ALG/Proxy instead of session-helper).

The best way to know if this is causing a problem is to perform a packet capture. You should be able to see if the phone is trying to register with its RFC 1918 address and NOT the NAT’d IP of the ASA/Fortigate.

Fortinet

config system session-helper
show

edit 13
set name sip
set protocol 17
set port 5060

To remove it:

delete 13
end

In the Cisco world, it is a bit easier. By doing a:

sh run | b policy-map

You will be able to see if SIP inspection is enabled or not

To disable SIP inspection on the ASA based on this example:

fw/sec/act(config)# policy-map global_policy
fw/sec/act(config-pmap)# class inspection_default
fw/sec/act(config-pmap-c)# no inspect sip

Here is the packet lifecycle on a Fortigate

Here is a good overview of the packets involved in a SIP communication

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